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Éducation à la citoyenneté

Enseignement d'un comportement participatif, démocratique et responsable pour améliorer sa ville, sa région, son pays, son école et voter sur les décisions publiques, à prendre dans le respect des personnes et communautés, des droits et devoirs de chacun, des lois et règlements. Dans un but de paix, la citoyenneté fait référence à « l’appartenance consciente à la communauté sociale, locale et mondiale, en tant qu’êtres libres, responsables et interreliés » (Thomas d’Ansembourg, 2008).

On distingue maintenant entre une définition étroite et une définition large du terme citoyenneté, exprimant ainsi une différence entre l'éducation civique et l'éducation à la citoyenneté.

Par exemple, le gouvernement australien écrit ce qui suit sur son site web :

Minimal interpretations lead to narrow, formal approaches to citizenship education - what has been termed civics education. This is largely content-led and knowledge-based. It is centred on formal education programmes which concentrate on the transmission to students of knowledge of a country’s history and geography, of the structure and processes of its system of government and of its constitution. The primary purpose is to inform through the provision and transmission of information. It lends itself to didactic teaching and learning approaches, with teacher-led, whole-class teaching as the dominant medium. There is little opportunity or encouragement for student interaction and initiative. (...)

Maximal interpretations are characterised by a broad definition of citizenship. They seek to actively include and involve all groups and interests in society. Maximal interpretations lead to a broad mixture of formal and informal approaches to what has been termed citizenship education, as opposed to narrower civics education.

This citizenship education includes the content and knowledge components of minimal  interpretations, but actively encourages investigation and  interpretation of the many different ways in which these components (including the rights and responsibilities of citizens) are determined and carried out. The primary aim is not only to inform, but also to use that information to help students to understand and to enhance their capacity to participate. It is as much about the content as about the process of teaching and learning. It lends itself to a broad mixture of teaching and learning approaches, from the didactic to the interactive, both inside and outside the classroom. Structured opportunities are created for student interaction through discussion and debate, and encouragement is given to students to use their initiative through project work, other forms of independent learning and participative experiences."

Source: Statements of Learning for Civics and Citizenship, p.2, 2006, Australian Government website. http://www.curriculum.edu.au/cce/national_statements_of_learning,8990.html

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